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Languary 25

Once you and I know who we each are, the next thing we want to do is talk about other people and that is why we need the third person. ‘Allspeak’ has four third person singular pronouns and two plural ones. All nouns are presumed to be in the third person until proven otherwise. Thus we have:

The singular third person pronouns are:

Subjective     Objective                  Possessive adjective      Reflexive

Fluid              jay /ʤeɪ/      jayer /ʤeɪɜ/             jaym /ʤeɪm/                jayerjay /ʤeɪɜʤeɪ/

She                jow /ʤaʊ/    jower /ʤaʊɜ/          jowm /ʤaʊm/              jowerjow /ʤaʊɜʤaʊ/

He                 jear /jıə/       jearer /jıəɜ/             jearm /jıəm/                 jearerjear /jıəɜjıə/

It (thing)       joy /jɔɪ/         joyer /jɔɪɜ/               joym /jɔɪm/                   joyerjoy /jɔɪɜjɔɪ/

Jay is for people or creatures of unknown gender or whose gender is known not to be completely male or female for whatever reason. Joy is only ever used for things, not people, unless that person tells you that it is their preferred pronoun.

The two plural third person pronouns may be described as the ‘known they’ and the ‘unknown they.’ When speaking theoretically or metaphorically, about ‘them’, the unknown form is used:

Subjective     Objective                  Possessive adjective      Reflexive

Known           jayk /jeɪk/     jayker /jeɪkɜ/            jaykm /jeɪkm/               jaykerjayk /jeɪkɜjeɪk/

Unknown      joyk /jɔɪk/     joyker /jɔɪkɜ/            joykm /jɔɪkm/                joyerjoy /jɔɪɜjɔɪ/

Where second person verb forms add the vowel of the subjective pronoun to the verb as a suffix before any other suffixes are added, the third person forms add the first sound of the subjective pronouns as a suffix in the same way, thus giving only one set of verb forms for the third person. Because of this, third person pronouns are more widely used then implied, whereas the first person pronouns are usually only implied and the second person pronouns are implied where reasonable. The resulting verb forms are”

Singular                         Plural

she/he/it stop = tarkj                                                                    they stop = tarkjk

she/he/it is stopping stop = tarkja                                                they are stopping = tarkjak

she/he/it will stop = tarkjyu                                                         they will stop = tarkjyuk

she/he/it will be stopping = tarkjayu                                           they will be stopping = tarkjayuk

she/he/it plan to stop = yutarkj                                                    they plan to stop = yutarkjk

she/he/it are planning to stop = yutarkja                                    they are planning to stop = yutarkjak

she/he/it will plan to stop = yutarkjyu                                         they will plan to stop = yutarkjyuk

she/he/it are going to be stopping/are planning to be stopping = yutarkjayu       they are going to be stopping/are planning to be stopping –  yutarkjayuk

she/he/it stopped = tarkjow                                                         they stopped – tarkjowk

she/he/it was stopping = tarkjaow                                               they stopped – tarkjaowk

she/he/it planned to stop = yutarkjow                                         they planned to stop = yutarkjowk

she/he/it were planning to stop = yutarkjaow                             they were planning to stop = yutarkjaowk

she/he/it had planned to stop = yutarkjow                      They had planned to stop – yutarkjowk

she/he/it was going to be stopping/was planning to be stopping – yutarkjaow     they were going to be stopping/were planning to be stopping - yutarkjaowk

Having these pronouns and verb forms allows us to talk about other people and, being human that means that we are often judgemental. In ‘Allspeak’ most words to do with spiritual values and virtues were lifted from Setsunyan religious practice, which was not only influential but had a wide ranging vocabulary on the subject to plunder. Kermge, an adjective meaning ‘deserving’ is such a word, coming from the verb kerm, ‘to deserve’.

There are two sets of qualifying words in ‘Allspeak’, one from Setsunyan practice that applied originally to human traits and virtues, and the other from Eddic which deal with physically observable phenomenon. If you describing a glass as being almost full, then you use gek for ‘almost’. You could also describe someone as being gek kermge, but the usual usage would be mahowl kermge, where mahowl means ‘almost or nearly attained.’

If we want to describe someone by age, then the word for boy is oud, specifically a pre-pubescent male, while an immature male who’s reached and passed puberty is an udool, and an adult male is a nanðroe.

The definite article, as already mentioned, is dek while the indefinite article is kle.

The conjunction used to join things which do not disagree, the equivalent of the English ‘and’ is eld.

Etsou / ɛtsoʊ/ is a word used to begin stories. It has connotations of ‘once upon a time’ and ‘once there was’, but it is also used to begin someone’s latest fishing story.

This allows us to say:

etsou kle ouder loshchegjow Eustace Clarence Scrubb eld mahowl kermjeow joyer.

(Once there was a boy named Eustace Clarence Scrubb and almost (he) deserved it.)

Or, more unkindly:

etsou kle ouder kopapojow Eustace Clarence Scrubb eld mahowl kermjeow joyer.

(Once there was a boy (everyone) called Eustace Clarence Scrubb and almost (he) deserved it.)


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A comment from Dr. Whom

« He          jear /jıə/       jearer /jıəɜ/        jearm /jıəm/          jearerjear /jıəɜjıə/ »

I don't think this conveys what you want to convey. Do you pronounce "dearer" with no /r/ sound between the syllables?

/ə/ and /ɜ/ are pretty close to the same vowel quality. Any difference is unrelated to rhoticity ("R-ness"). In American English notation, at least, the difference in usage seems to be mostly that /ə/ is used when the vowel is unstressed, and /ɜ/ when it has some degree of stress. "R-dropping" happens at the end of a syllable when the /r/ is not immediately followed by a vowel.* For those who don't drop their R's, "cellar" and "fur" are transcribed /ˈsel.ɚ/ and /fɝː/; the little hook attached on the right shows the "r-coloration" of the vowel.**

Listen to the sound files for British and American pronunciations of "hear" and "hearer" in the Cambridge Dictionaries. (You don't need to switch to the "American" tab: both pronunciations are on the pages I've linked, for easy comparison.)

So I'm pretty sure you want
jearer /jıərə/ and jearerjear /jıərəjıə/

* /ː/ just means the vowel is somewhat prolonged, because it's stressed and in the last syllable [and whatever else]; cf. "cigar" /sɪˈɡɑːr/.

** Conversely, R-insertion adds an /r/ to the end of a word ending in a vowel when it's followed by a word beginning with a vowel, whether the spelling has an "r" there or not. See Wikipedia on Linking and intrusive R; the article is also helpful on R-dropping (Non-rhotic varieties).

Respectfully submitted,
Dr. Whom: Consulting Linguist, Grammarian, Orthoëpist, and Philological Busybody

Re: A comment from Dr. Whom

I may need to insert some of the /r/sounds I hear.

Part of my problem is that the dictionary tells me that in these parts:

mere is /mıə/ and mermaid is /mɜmeɪd/

And I can hear /r/ as the third sound in both words....

Re: A comment from Dr. Whom

Australia, is it? Well, your dictionary is giving you the prons from some "standard" arhotic — R-less— dialect, and your dialect is rhotic— R-ful (no, not awful!).

Ah, "dialect": Not pejorative. Doesn't mean "ignorant" or "country". You can't speak without speaking a language... and a dialect.

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